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Best way to read of Pharmacology | Study tips and Tricks

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In this post we are going to discuss about the Pharmacology study tips, Important learning or questions topics and guidance of exam passing preparation with good score.

We are going to discuss about the :

  1. Meaning/Definition
  2. How to read the Subject
  3. What are the important topics
  4. How to perform well in the viva table
  5. How to score well in the University exam

Meaning/ Definition :

Pharmacology is the study of the Drugs. A drug may be described as any artificial, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule that exerts a biochemical or physiological impact on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism, and pharmacology is a branch of medicine and pharmaceutical sciences concerned with drug or medication activity. It is the study of how chemicals interact with living organisms to impact normal or pathological biochemical function. Pharmaceuticals are defined as chemicals that have therapeutic effects.

How to read the subject :

The most interesting subject of 2nd year MBBS. Surely you are going to fall in love with this subject. Focus on General pharmacology as much as you can. Because here the basic idea of all the mechanisms are present.

Now come to concept, so for detail concept making you ca Dr. Najeeb lectures. In this lecture series you will find detail video discussion of every topic. So make sure you are doing Dr. Najeeb Sir’s Lectures.

Then from each chapters you need to know the different drugs which acts and their mechanism of action,Classification, Indications, Side effects.

Just try to find out the mechanism of action of every drugs, then you by yourself can assume the effects on the body.

Now the the part comes where you are facing the new long name of the drugs. Unfortunately, you have to remember the names of the drugs also and the examiners are going to ask the names of each and every drugs according to the drugs classification. There are lots of Mnemonics are available to remember the drugs’ names. Try to find out the mnemonics of all the Pharmacology drugs. Even you can make mnemonics by yourself also. So you have to focus on Mnemonics for remembering the drugs’ names.

And uses some good study materials to read or revise the Pharmacology subject. The KAPLAN USMLE notes are awesome in one word. Go for it without any hesitation, Everything are there in very comprehensive manner and with great colourful diagrams with detail labelling.The diagrams are so easy to understand and you can easily make a picture on your brain. So your time will be saved and you will just fall in love with Pharmacology.

Again I’m repeating that this subject is so much interesting and you will just fall love with Pharmacology. Go in depth as much as possible.

What are the important topics :

(Only important for your Exam, study all topics if you want to enjoy Medicine)

General Pharmacology :

  1. Definition of ‘Essential Medicine’
  2. Orphan Drugs
  3. Routes of drug administration – Local & Sytemic routes
  4. Factors influencing drugs absorption
  5. Bioavailability
  6. Apparent volume of distribution
  7. First-Pass metabolism
  8. Apparent volume of distribution
  9. Redistribution
  10. Plasma Protein Binding
  11. Biotransformation
  12. Prodrug
  13. Pathways of drug metabolism – Phase 1 and Phase 2 reactions
  14. Factors affecting drug metabolism
  15. Pharmacogenetics
  16. Enzyme induction
  17. Clinical importance of microsomal enzyme induction
  18. Plasm Half-Life
  19. Clearance
  20. Loading dose and Maintenance dose
  21. Therapeutic drug monitoring
  22. Fixed dose combination
  23. Receptor Mediated mechanism – Agonist, Antagonist, Partial Agonist and Inverse AGonist
  24. G-Protein coupled receptors
  25. Nuclear Receptors
  26. Dose-Response Relationship
  27. Types of Dose-Response Curves
  28. Therapeutic Index
  29. Drug Potency
  30. Drug Efficacy
  31. Physiological Antagonism
  32. Placebo effect
  33. Tolerance
  34. Tachyphylaxis
  35. Pharmacovigilance
  36. Clinical Trials

ANS(Autonomic Nervous System) Drugs :

  1. Cholinergic Agonist
  2. Muscarinic Actions
  3. Acetylcholine, Pilocarpine and Physostigmine mechanism of action
  4. Nicotinic Actions
  5. Pilocarpine
  6. Neostigmine
  7. Pyridostigmine
  8. Anticholinesterases
  9. OP Poisoning – Treatment
  10. Atropine
  11. Depolarizing Blockers – Succinylcholine(Suxamethonium)
  12. Therapeutic uses of Adrenaline
  13. Dobutamine – Selective Beta-1 Agonist
  14. Ritodrine – Selective Beta-2 Agonist
  15. Nasal Decongestants
  16. Phenoxybenzamine
  17. Pheochromocytoma
  18. Benign prostatic hyperplasia

CVS(Cardiovascular System) Drugs :

  1. Classification of Antihypertensive drugs
  2. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
  3. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
  4. Thiazide Diuretics
  5. Selective alpha-1 blockers
  6. Nitrates mechanism of action
  7. Antiplatelet agents
  8. Cyanide poisoning treatment
  9. Beta Adrenergic Blockers(Very very important : (Don’t go for Viva without knowing)
  10. Amlodipine
  11. Sildenafil/Tadalafil
  12. Pharmacotherapy of Acute Myocardial Infarction
  13. Vasodilators
  14. ACE Inhibitors
  15. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
  16. Digitalis mechanism of action
  17. Dopamine
  18. Sodium channel blockers
  19. calcium channel blockers
  20. Hypolipidemic drugs

Renal Pharmacology :

  1. Concept about Diuretics
  2. Loop Diuretics
  3. Intravenous furosemide
  4. Spironolactone

CNS(Central Nervous System) Drugs :

  1. Benzodiazepines – Pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses
  2. Benzodiazepine Antagonist
  3. Propofol
  4. Thiopentone Sodium
  5. Ketamine
  6. Preanaesthetic Medications
  7. Local Anaesthetics mechanism of action
  8. Combination of Vasoconstrictor with local anaesthetic
  9. Antiepileptic Dugs
  10. Phenytoin
  11. Carbamazepin
  12. Valproic Acid
  13. Status Epilepticus
  14. Morphine actions
  15. Opioid Antagonists – Naloxone, Naltrexone, and Nalmefene
  16. Levodopa
  17. Antidepressants drugs mechanism of action
  18. Lithium

Autacoids and Respiratory System :

  1. H1 Blockers
  2. First generation agents
  3. Cetrizine and Levocetrizine
  4. Ergot Preparations – Triptan
  5. Antiplatelet effects of NSAIDS
  6. Clinical uses of NSAIDS
  7. Acute paracetamol poisoning
  8. Colchicine
  9. Allopurinol and Feboxostat
  10. Methotrexate
  11. Bronchodilators
  12. Leukotriene Antagonists
  13. Mast cell stabilizers
  14. Treatment of Asthma
  15. Treatment of Acute Severe Asthma(Status Asthmaticus)

GI(Gastro Intestinal) Diseases Drugs :

  1. Antihistamines – H2 Blockers
  2. 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists
  3. Prokinetic Drugs
  4. Metoclopramide
  5. Domperidone
  6. Uses of Antiemetic Drugs
  7. Mosapride
  8. Oral Rehydration Solution
  9. Stimulant Laxatives
  10. Bisacodyl
  11. Lactulose
  12. Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPSs)
  13. Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome
  14. Prostaglandin Analogues
  15. Sucralfate
  16. Types of Antacids

Blood and Blood forming organs Drugs :

  1. Heparin
  2. The coagulation cascade
  3. Low molecular heparin
  4. Advantages of LMWHs(Low Molecular Heparins)
  5. Oral Anticoagulants
  6. Fibrinolytics(Thromobolytics)
  7. Aspirin(TXA2 Synthesis Inhibitor)
  8. Ticlopidine, Clopidogrel and Prasugrel
  9. Vitamin B12 or Cyanoclobamine
  10. Erythropoietin

Endocrine Pharmacology :

  1. Hypothalamic Regulatory hormones
  2. Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones
  3. Antithyroid Drugs
  4. Thioamides and mechanism of action
  5. Radioactive Iodine
  6. Thyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid Storm
  7. Danazol
  8. Anabolic Steroids/ Synthetic Androgens
  9. Clomiphene citrate
  10. Tamoxifen
  11. Raloxifene
  12. Antiprogestin
  13. Combined Oestrogen and Progestin preparations
  14. Mechanism of action of contraceptives
  15. Postcoital pill
  16. Corticosteroids
  17. Glucocorticoids
  18. Glucocorticoids effects – Anti Inflammatory effects, Immunosuppressant effect, Long term therapy and HPA axis suppression
  19. Insulin preparation
  20. Diabetic Ketoacidosistotic Diabetic Coma
  21. Biguanides
  22. DPP-4 Inhibitors – Sitagliptine, Saxagliptin and Vildagliptin
  23. Bisphosphonates
  24. Management of diabetic ketoacidosis

Drugs Acting on the Uterus :

  1. Oxytocin mechanism of action
  2. Induction of labour
  3. Postpartum haemorrhage
  4. Ergometrine and Methylergometrine
  5. Uterine Relaxants
  6. Magnesium Sulphate

Chemotherapy :

  1. Superinfection
  2. Sulphonamides
  3. Cotrimoxazole
  4. Quinolones and Fluroquinolones
  5. Beta Lactam Antibiotics
  6. Penicillin
  7. Meropenem and Doripenem
  8. Tetracyclines
  9. Advantages of Doxycycline
  10. Drawbacks of Erythromycin
  11. Azithromycin
  12. Antitubercular Drugs
  13. Anti Leprosy Drugs
  14. Lepra Reaction
  15. Ketoconazole
  16. Itraconazole
  17. Fluconazole
  18. Antiviral Drugs
  19. Zidovudine
  20. Antemalarial Drugs
  21. Artemisinin and Its Derivatives
  22. Metronidazole
  23. Antihelmintics
  24. Alkylating Agents

Others :

  1. Chelating Agents

How to perform well in viva table :

You must have solid interaction skills and respect for your examiner in order to make your Viva table successful.

One thing to remember is to be honest and not to try to appear overly intelligent during your Viva in front of your examiner.

You must either construct your own notebook or acquire notes from the market. Then start working hard on your preparation and reading your notes on a regular basis.

You should be able to answer all of the questions after 4-5 revisions.

Make sure you’re practising with a roommate or a study buddy. Discussing each topic in a conversational manner will boost your confidence and allow you to respond more confidently.

How to score well in the University exam :

Solve the articles from the preceding ten years at your university; you’ll obtain 70-80 percent of the questions there, with the rest coming from the entire journal.

If your university employs a semester system, try to complete all of the semester papers from all of the colleges for that year. The majority of the questions will come from them, which will account for 20-30% of the total.

What is the most efficient technique to complete the exam paper right now?

—> Try to include images/flowcharts in each answer because each query has its own set of marks.

As a result, the examiner will be able to detect the scent of what you’ve written or your knowledge of the subject. If the flowchart has clarified everything, it’s your turn; don’t forget to underline important points in your response. Instead of cramming everything into one paragraph, try to write short responses in the written section.

If you accomplish all of these goals, the impressed interviewer will gladly give you a 75-80% rating.

As a result, each question should contain a basic diagram/flowchart, highlighted key points, and succinct answers.

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