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Best way to read of Microbiology | Study tips and Tricks

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In this post we are going to discuss about the Microbiology study tips, Important learning or question topics and guidance of exam passing preparation with good score.

We are going to discuss about the :

  1. Meaning/Definition
  2. How to read the Subject
  3. What are the important topics
  4. How to perform well in the viva table
  5. How to score well in the University exam

Meaning/ Definition :

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, sometimes known as microbes, which are a diverse group of microscopic basic life forms that include Bacteria, Virus, Fungi, Parasites, Algae etc. The structure, function, and classification of such creatures, as well as methods of exploiting and managing their activity, are all topics covered in this discipline.

How to read the subject :

If Biochemistry isn the most difficult subject of 1st year MBBS, then this place is replaced by Microbiology in the Second year MBBS. Because here also you have to mug up so many things in Bacteriology, Virology, and Parasitology.

General Microbiology and Immunology is easy, here you will be able to find some interesting conceptual topics. If a good teacher teaches you the Immunology part, then you are surely going to love this chapter. But unfortunately there are few teachers who can teach this subjects in very interesting way. And in General Microbiology you are going to find some easy concepts parts and also few mugging up topics.

Before entering to systemic Microbiology, here you are getting Bacteriology, Parasitology, Virology and Fungi. So make sure you arriving the clear concept of their classification, then only you will be able to remember all the data. So first understand and make notes about the classification.

Bacteriology is a taking most of the systemic microbiology, so here you have to mug up so many things. Then comes Parasitology, 2nd most largest part of systemic microbiology. So make sure you are having the mugging up skill. Parasites life cycles, host, agent are the part you have to remember.

Virology , here you also have to mug up some details.

What are the important topics :

(Only important for your Exam, study all topics if you want to enjoy Medicine)

General Microbiology – important topics :

  1. Microscope – types and their principle
  2. Electron Microscope full details
  3. Gram Staining – Procedure and Principle
  4. Acid Fast Stain – Zn(Ziehl-Neelsen) Stain
  5. Albert Satin
  6. Bacterial Cell wall – Teichoic Acid
  7. Cell wall appendages -Capsule and Slime layer, Biofilm formation
  8. Serological test
  9. Flagella
  10. Bacterial Motility
  11. Fimbriae or Pilli
  12. Bacterial Spores – Sporulation, Germination
  13. Bacterial Growth Curve – Lag phase, Log phase, Stationary phase
  14. Factors affecting growth of bacteria – Oxygen

Sterilisation and Disinfection – important topics :

  1. Sterilisation and Disinfection
  2. Dry heat, Hot air oven and Moist heat
  3. Inspissation/Fractional sterilization
  4. Tyndallization
  5. Autoclave and its principle
  6. Sterilizing conditions in Autoclave
  7. Chemical agents of sterilisation – Formaldehyde
  8. Gaseous Sterilisation – Ethylene oxide

Culture Media and Culture Methods – important topics :

  1. Types of culture media
  2. Blood Agar
  3. Enrichment Broth
  4. Lowenstein-Jensen medium
  5. Transport Media
  6. MacConkey agar
  7. Robertson’s cooked meat broth

Identification of Bacteria :

  1. Biochemical tests – Catalase test, Oxidase test, Indole test, Citrate Utilisation test, Triple Sugar Iron Agar test, Decarboxylase test, Methyl Red test, Voges-Proskauer test.

Bacterial Genetics important topics :

  1. Plasmid and Resistance Plasmids
  2. Mutation
  3. Gene transfer methods – Transformation, Transduction, Lysogenic Conversion, and Conjugation
  4. Resistance Transfer Factor (RTF)

Antimicrobial :

  1. Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance
  2. Beta Lactamase enzyme

Microbial Pathogenecity :

  1. Difference between Endotoxins and Exotoxins

Immunology – important topics :

  1. Difference between Innate Immunity and Acquired Immunity
  2. Active and Passive Immunity
  3. Primary and Secondary Immune Response
  4. Hapten
  5. Heterophile Antigens
  6. Superantigens
  7. Immunolobulins – IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
  8. Monoclonal Antibody
  9. AntigenAntibody Reaction
  10. Passive Agglutination test
  11. Prozone phenomenon
  12. Complement Fixation test
  13. ELISA test
  14. Immunofluorescence Assay
  15. Immunchromagraphic Test
  16. Complement System
  17. Classical pathway of Complement system
  18. Difference between T-cell and B-cell
  19. Difference between MHC class-I and MHC Class-II
  20. Cytokines
  21. Helper T cells
  22. TH1 and TH2 cytokines and their functions
  23. Humoral /AntibodyMediated immune response
  24. Hypersensitivity Reactions types
  25. Serum Sickness and Arthus Reaction

Systemic Bacteriology – important topics :

  1. Virulence Factors
  2. Full bacteriology classification
  3. Toxic Shock Syndrome
  4. Urinary Tract infection causing bacteria
  5. Coagulase negative staphjylococci
  6. Staphylococcus epidermidis Pathogenesis
  7. Suppurative Complications of of streptococcus pyrogens infection
  8. Toxic Shock Syndrome
  9. Group B streptococci
  10. Treatment of Enterococcus
  11. Difference between Streptococcus pneumonia and Viridans streptococci
  12. Pneumococcus Capsular polysaccharide, Lab diagnosis
  13. Quellung Reaction
  14. Pyogenic meningitis
  15. Corynebacterium diphtheria – Virulence factors, Pathogenicity, Lab diagnosis, Shick Test
  16. Clinical types of bacillus
  17. Human Anthrax
  18. Virulence factors of clostridium perfringens
  19. Gas gangrene lab diagnosis
  20. Nagler’s reaction
  21. Infant botulism
  22. Nontuberculous mycobacteria
  23. Tuberculin test
  24. Resistance to Antitubercular Drugs
  25. Lepromin Test
  26. Actinomycosis
  27. Kass concept of significant bacteriuria
  28. E.Coli Types
  29. Shia-like Toxin
  30. Weil-Felix Reaction
  31. Plague Types
  32. Anamnestic Response
  33. Nonhalophilic vibrios
  34. Cholera Toxin
  35. Satellitism
  36. Whooping cough
  37. VDRL
  38. Chlamydiae are bacteria, not virus
  39. Mycoplasmas and L-form

Virology – important topics :

  1. Viral Replication
  2. Inclusion Body
  3. Interferon mechanism of action
  4. Isolation of Virus
  5. Tissue Culture
  6. Cytopathic Effect
  7. Neonatal varicella
  8. Zostal ophthalmicus
  9. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
  10. Lysogenic Cycle
  11. Antigenic Variation of Influenza virus
  12. CNS complications of measles virus
  13. Difference between Injectable and Oral Polio vaccine
  14. Polio Eradication
  15. Arbovirus found in India
  16. Hemorrhagic fever group
  17. Antibody response against Dengue Virus
  18. Dengue hemorrhagic fever
  19. Dengue Shock Syndrome
  20. Negri Bodies
  21. Rabies vaccine
  22. Rabies prophylaxis
  23. HIV virus
  24. Opportunistic infections
  25. Prion Diseases
  26. Rotavirus
  27. Hep-A virus
  28. Viral markers of HBV Infection
  29. Hep-C virus
  30. Viral Oncogenesis

Parasitology – Important topics :

  1. Protozoa classification – Amoebae, Ciliates, Flagellates, Sporozoa
  2. Entamoeba hystolytica
  3. Naeglaria fowleri
  4. Acanthamoeba species
  5. Giardia lamblia
  6. Trichomonas vaginalis
  7. Leishmania – L. Donovan, L.tropica, L.brasilensis
  8. PKDL(Post Kala Azar Leishmaniasis)
  9. Trypanoma brucei
  10. Trypanoma Cruzi
  11. Toxoplasma gondii
  12. Plasmodium species – P.vivax, P.ovale, P.falciparum, P.knowlesi
  13. Helminthology – Cestodes, Trematodes, and Nematodes
  14. Diphyllobothrium Tatum/ Fish tapeworm
  15. H. nana/ Dwarf Tape worm
  16. Echinococcus granulosus/ Dog tapeworm – Hydatid Cyst (very very important topic)
  17. Trematodes – Schistosoma haematobium, S.mansoni, S.japonicum, Fasciola hepatica/Sheep liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis/oriental/chinese liver fluke, Paragonimus westimoni(Lung Fluke).
  18. Nematodes – Ascaris, Hookworm, Necator americanus, Strongyloides sterclaris, Tricuris trichura, Enterobius vermicularis, Wucheria bancrofti, Brugyia malayi, Brugyia timori, Loa Loa, Onchocerca volvolus

Fungi – important topics :

  1. Classification of fungi
  2. Dimorphic fungi
  3. Opportunistic fungi
  4. Tinea Versicolor
  5. Eumycotoma
  6. Mucosal candidiasis and lab diagnosis
  7. Cryptococcosis
  8. Pseudohyphae and True Hyphae

How to perform well in Microbiology viva table :

For the Grand Viva, simply produce a notebook and begin covering all of the topics in a diagram/flowchart format. This will help you revise more efficiently before the exam.

All practical contents are as follows: The examiner will inquire about Specimens, Microscopic slides, Microbiology lab equipments, Gram staining and various lab tests in this regard.

So, here’s everything you need to know about General microbiology, Systemic microbiology. In the Gram staining section the examiner will ask you about all the theories regarding to that particular organism. So make sure you are reading the Biochemical tests, virulence factors, etc. You must have to cover all the topics from a standard textbook.

When working with specimens, make a mental note of all the relevant facts. For example, if you’re studying Taenia solium, you’ll need to know what are the defining features, diagnoses, and tests are.

In the Lab equipments table, you will be asked to pick up one or two devices, after which the examiner will ask you questions regarding the device’s name, uses, and other pertinent information. Try to read it from a practical book, and don’t forget to take self-notes so you may go over it again before the Viva.

Also, make sure you’re attending your Practical classes for lab tests.

How to score well in the Microbiology University exam :

You must solve prior year’s question papers from that university in order to pass the university test. Then, in a notebook, create flowcharts and diagrams for each prior year’s questions.

And also try to solve supplementary question papers of your respective University, you are surely going to get some uncommon questions from that part.

Revise all of the diagrams and flowcharts for presentation in the answer paper now, before the exam. Keep in mind that each question has its own set of marks for diagrams and flowcharts.

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