In this post we are going to discuss about the Ophthalmology study tips, Important learning or questions topics and guidance of exam passing preparation with good score.
We are going to discuss about the :
- How to read the Subject
- What are the important topics
- How to perform well in the viva table
- How to score well in the University exam
Meaning/ Definition :
Ophthalmology is a medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of eye problems.
How to read the subject :
Ophthalmology is a subject where you have to remember lots of diseases of the eye. May be the subject looks small but the number of diseases and clinical features are so vast and tough to remember. So one must have to keep a notebook where all the diseases clinical features, symptoms and management are written.
Another thing you have to do is the picture album collection. Where all the diseases are summarized in album manner.
Next step is the visiting the OPD of your medical school. Where you will see various cases and real life experience. So now it will be easy for you to remember the cases once you see with the real patient.
What are the important topics :
(Only important for your Exam, study all topics if you want to enjoy Medicine)
Here we need to summarise all the important topics for quick revision and before viva time revision.
- Anatomy of the eyeball – Mainly we read about the coats of the eyeball and structure of the eyeball.
- Parts of the Eyeball – The front part mainly consists of four part – Iris, Cornea, Sclera and conjunctiva.
- Conjunctivitis – It is the inflammation of the conjunctiva. Types – Bacterial, viral and Neonatal
- Cornea and diseases – In this section we study about the layers of the cornea. Diseases of the cornea – Kayser-Fleischer ring, keratoconus, Corneal ulcer(Bacterial, fungal, and viral keratitis), Stromal dystrophies, Endothelial dystrophies, Cogan’s dystrophy.
- Uvea anatomy and diseases – Uveal Anatomy – It is the middle layer of the eye(Iris, Ciliary body, Choroid). Uveitis – Anterior uveitis, Intermediate uveitis, Posterior uveitis.
- Sclera – It starts from the limbus and extends posteriorly. And here we study about Staphyloma, Scleritis
- Lens anatomy – It is a Biconvex lens where Anterior curvature is little lesser compared to the posterior surface of lens.
- Congenital anomalies of lens – Congenital cataract, Zonular/lamellar cataract, posterior polar cataract and Sutural cataract.
- Cataract –Capsular cataract, Cortical cataract, Nuclear cataract.
- Refraction – Eye refraction mainly presents the power of eyeglasses or contact lenses which is calculated.
- Astigmatism – Here the vertical and horizontal curvatures are different. Types – Simple(Myopic and Hypermetropic), Compound(Myopic and Hypermetropic), Mixed astigmatism
- Retina anatomy – Retina is derived from Neuroectoderm. We mainly read about the layers of Retina and Photoreceptors.
- Retina diseases – The diseases are mainly – Central Retinal Artery Occlusion, Central Retinal Vein occlusion, Cheery red spot, Retinal Vasculitis, Retinoblastoma, Retinopathy, Retinitis pigmentosa, Retinal detachment.
- Macula – Macular edema, Bull’s eye maculopathy, Central serous choroidopathy, Best’s disease, Stargardt’s disease, Age related macular degeneration.
- Retina Investigations – Fundus fluorescein Angiography, Occipital coherence tomography.
- Glaucoma – It is the condition where the intraocular pressure gets increased. It is of two types mainly ( Primary open angle glaucoma and Acute congestive glaucoma)
- Visual pathway –The visual pathway mainly contains the anatomical structures which are responsible for the conversion of light energy into electrical action potentials that can be sensed by the brain.
- Optic nerve and lesions – Optic nerve mainly contains four parts(Intra ocular, Intra orbital, Intra canalicular, Intra cranial).
- Pupil and abnormalities –The pupil is a pin sized hole located in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to focus on the retina.
- Disorders of gaze – Simple gaze means eye movement by the Extra ocular muscles.
- Squint –Disorder in which the eyes don’t look in exactly the same direction at the same time.
- Vitreous – 99% vitreous is water and it’s amount is 4ml.
- Orbit – It is pyramidal or pear shaped & it’s amount is 30ml.
- Blunt trauma – Racoon’s eye/Panda’s eye, Sub-conjunctival haemorrhage, Chemosis, Scleral rupture.
- Lids – The eyelids mainly contains upper and lower lids. Inflammation of Lid glands, Chronic inflammation, Disorders of lid margins, Ptosis
- Lacrimal apparatus – It mainly contains 2 glands ( Main and Accessory). Lacrimal Drainage System(Lacrimal Punctum, Lacrimal canaliculi, Lacrimal Sac, Nasolacrimal duct, Inferior meatus of nose)
- Retinopathy of prematurity – It is the development of retinal vasculature. And the pus diseases.
How to perform well in viva table :
For making your Viva table good, you must have to gain a good conversation skill and respect towards your examiner.
Remember one thing be honest and don’t try to be over smart during the Viva in front of your examiner.
You must have to make a notebook or you should purchase notes from the market. Then start to prepare hard and read the notes regularly.
After revising 4-5 times, you will be able to answer all the questions.
Make sure you are practicing with your roommate or study partner. Discussing each and every topics in conversation manner will make you confidence and you will be answering more confidently.
How to score well in the University exam :
For ophthalmology University exam make sure you are solving the previous 10 years question papers. So first solve the previous years question papers and then make a notebook where you are writing all the flowcharts and draw all the diagrams.
Mainly ophthalmology question paper contains maximum 5 marks questions. So for getting the full marks you must have to draw a diagrams and write down a flowchart.
Now come to case presentation during the practical exams. For that you have to visit your hospital ward regularly during clinical posting. Listen each and every word told by your Professors. Then it will be easy for you to present the case more accurately.