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Best way to read of Pathology | Study tips and Tricks

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In this post we are going to discuss about the Pathology study tips, Important learning or questions topics and guidance of exam passing preparation with good score.

We are going to discuss about the :

  1. Meaning/Definition
  2. How to read the Subject
  3. What are the important topics
  4. How to perform well in the viva table
  5. How to score well in the University exam

Meaning/ Definition :

The study of the origins and effects of disease or injury is known as pathology. Pathology also refers to the study of illness as a whole, which encompasses a wide range of biology research topics and medical procedures. When used in the context of modern medical treatment, however, the term is frequently narrowed to refer to processes and tests that fall under the contemporary medical field of “general pathology,” which encompasses a number of distinct but related medical specialties that diagnose disease, primarily through tissue, cell, and body fluid samples.

How to read the subject :

umm Pathology….

This subject is the most important subject of second year MBBS and has mainly two parts – General Pathology & Systemic Pathology.

In general pathology you will learn several topics which will be so important to understand the whole disease process.

–> Inflammation – If you see, everywhere there is inflammation. So if you have to read this chapter line by line from the Robbins Pathology.

So put as much time and efforts as you can in General pathology, because when you will try to find pathogenesis of any disease then these knowledges will be helpful for you.

Noe reading any standard books like Robbin Pathology is difficult. So H question is how to read ‘Standard Textbook’.

Reading standard textbooks line by line is not easy so start focus on the Diagrams, these will help you to make a basic idea that what is written inside the text, and that is how you can cover all the topics in quick time.

No come to Systemic Pathology, for this you should have the basic knowledge of physiology of all organs, then start one by one body system.

Histopathology : This portion is another headache for all undergraduate students. So here you need the concept and knowledge of Histology. Then start to understand all the layers, gland, blood cells abnormalities.

That’s it, you are on you way —-

What are the important topics :

(Only important for your Exam, study all topics if you want to enjoy Medicine)

General Pathology

  1. The Cell as a unit of health and disease : NonCoding DNA, Micro-RNA and Long Noncoding RNA, Cellular Housekeeping, Plasma Membrane, Cytoskeleton and Cell-Cell Interactions(Actin microfilament, Intermediate filaments, Microtubules, Occluding junctions, Anchoring junctions, Communicating junctions), Growth factors and receptors chart(very very important),
  2. Cellular Response to Stress and Toxic Insults : Stages of cellular response to stress and injurious stimuli, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Atrophy, Metaplasia, Causes of cell Injury, Reversible and Irreversible injury, Necrosis, Mechanism of cell injury, Accumulation of Oxygen-Derived Free radicals(Oxidative Stress), Defects in membrane permeability,Apoptosis and its mechanism, Necroptosis, Metastatic Calcificaltion
  3. Inflammation and repair : Definition of Inflammation, Causes, Acute and Chronic Inflammation difference, Steps of Acute Inflammation, Neutophil Extracellular Traps, Mediators of Inflammation, Granulomatous Inflammation, Tissue Repair and Healing procedures with steps.
  4. Hemodynamic Disorders, Thombroembolic Disease, and Shock : Edema and Effusions, Hemostasis, Coagulation cascade, Thrombosis and it’s fate, Embolism, Infarction, Shock,
  5. Genetic Disorders : X-linked Disorders, Normal Karyotype, Trisomy 21(down Syndrome), Klienfelter Syndrome, Turner Syndrome,
  6. Disease of the Immune System(Detail study in Microbiology) : Hypersensitivity, Rejection of Tissue transplant, Amyloidosis
  7. Neoplasia : Nomenclature, Metastasis, Pathway of spread, Retinoblastoma and TP53 gene, Chromosomal Translocations
  8. Infectious Disease(Detail study in Microbiology) : Bacterial, Viral, Fungal and Parasites || But if you want to know the pathogenesis then no other better option is available, just follow this chapter.
  9. Environmental and Nutritional Diseases : Effects of Tobacco, Smoking and Other Diseases, Injury produced by ionising radiation
  10. Diseases of Infancy and Childhood : Just basic knowledges of all the diseases you need to know from here because later in Obstetrics and Paediatrics you will learn in detail.


  1. Blood Vessels :Aortic Aneurysm, 1Thrombophlebitis and Phlebothrombosis
  2. The Heart : Myocardial Infarction, Gross morphology and Microscopic features of Myocardial Infarction, Laboratory findings of Myocardial Infarction, Complications of MI, Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic heart disease – Acute Rheumatic Heart Disease, Etiology and Pathogenesis, Complications
  3. Diseases of White Blood cells, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, And Thymus : Leukemoid Reaction, Difference between leukemoid reaction and Chronic myeloid leukaemia, Acute leukaemia – Classification, FAB Classification of Acute Leukemias, Laboratory findings of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia – Laboratory findings,Philadelphia(Ph Chromosome), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia- Etiology & Laboratory Findings, Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia – Peripheral smear& Blast phase, Plasma cell myeloma – Laboratory Findings.
  4. Red Blood cell and Bleeding disorders : Classification of Anaemia, Iron Deficiency Anaemia -Laboratory findings of Peripheral blood, Megaloblastic Anaemia – Laboratory findings of peripheral blood & Bone marrow, Pernicious Anaemia laboratory findings, Aplastic anaemia bone marrow findings, Hemolytic anaemia peripheral smear findings, Hereditary Spherocytosis, Beta Thalassemia Major- Pathophysiology, Laboratory findings in peripheral blood and peripheral smear, Sickle cell anaemia – Diagnostic/Confirmatory tests, Rh Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Antiglobulin or Coombs test

Systemic Pathology

  1. The Lung : Pneumonia – Lobar Pneumonia(Morphological stages), Complications, Primary Tuberculosis(Morphology, Ghon complex, Microscopy), Secondary Tuberculosis, Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Pneumoconioses, Neuroendocrine Tumors or Small cell Carcinoma
  2. Head and Neck : Pleomorphic Adenoma
  3. The Gastrointestinal Tract : Barret Oesophagus, Pylori Gastritis – Mechanism of Action, Chronic Gastritis – Pathogenesis & Morphology, Early gastric carcinoma, Classification of gastric carcinoma based on Macroscopic Growth pattern, Crohn disease, Morphology of Crohn disease, Ulcerative Colitis – Microscopy, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Colorectal Cancer pathogenesis and Genetic pathways.
  4. Liver and Gallbladder : Conjugated and Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia, Sequence of Serological markers for HBV Hepatitis, Cirrhosis and main causes, Alcoholic Cirrhosis, Consequence of Portal Hypertension, HBV Infection,Cholelithiasis(Gallstones), Complications of Gall Stone.
  5. The Pancreas : Acute Pancreatitis, Classification of Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Complications of Diabetes mellitus type-1, Laboratory diagnosis of Diabetes, Glycosylated Haemoglobin.
  6. The Kidney : Glomerulonephritis, Chronic Glomerulonephritis – Morphology, Diabetic Nephropathy, Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease – Pathogenesis and Morphology, Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease, Renal Cell Carcinoma – Types || Morphology || Microscopy , Paraneoplastic Syndrome, Wilms Tumor.
  7. The lower Urinary Tract and Male Genital System : Prostate – Benign prostatic hyperplasia || Gross features, Seminoma
  8. The Female Genital Tract : Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia, Invasive Carcinoma of Cervix, Pap smear examination, WHO classification of Ovarian neoplasms, Germ cell tutors, Teratomas.
  9. The Breast : Classification of common breast tumours, Invasive carcinoma(Morphological features).
  10. The Endocrine System : Hashimoto Thyroiditis, Fine needle aspiration cytology, Graves Disease,
  11. The skin : Basal cell carcinoma
  12. Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissue Tumors : Bone Infections(Osteomyelitis) – Pathogenesis and Morphology, Involucrum, Bone Tumors, Giant-Cell Tumour, Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor,
  13. The central nervous system :Acute Pyogenic Meningitis – CSF changes and Complications, Chronic Meningitis – Cerebrospinal Fluid(CSF).

How to perform well in viva table :

For Grand Viva : Just make a notebook and start to cover all the topics in diagram/flowchart manner this will boost your revision before the exam and you will be able to revise quickly.

All Practical contents : For this the examiner asks about – Specimens, Instruments, Histopathology, and some lab tests

—> So here for everything you need to know the Systemic Pathology and Haematology in depth.

In specimens you have to make a note by yourself for better memorising all the important points, Like if you are studying Breast carcinoma, then you have to know what are the identifying features, diagnosis and tests.

And in instruments/equipments table you will be asked with one or two device, then the examiner can ask you about the Name, uses, and other related questions. Try to read this from a practical bookend don’t forget to make self notes which you can make a quick revision before the Viva.

Histopathology, you have to identify a particular Haematology slide and some slides from systemic diseases. And have to write identifying features about the slides. For that make sure you are doing all the Histopathology classes and making a Practical Notebook.

And for lab tests also make sure you are attending your Practical classes.

How to score well in the University exam :

Solve your university’s previous ten years’ papers; you’ll get 70-80 percent of the questions from there, with the remainder coming from the whole journal.

If your university uses a semester scheme, aim to solve all of the semester papers from all of the colleges inside that university for that year. You can get the majority of the questions from those, which will make up 20-30% of the total.
Presented by:

What is the best way to write the exam paper now? Each query has its own set of marks, so try to include images/flowcharts in each answer.

As a result, the examiner will be able to smell what you’ve written or what you know about the subject. If the flowchart clarifies all, it’s your turn; don’t forget to highlight key points in your answer. In the written section, aim to write concise responses rather than cramming everything into one paragraph.

If you have done all of these things, the impressed interviewer will not hesitate to award you 75-80%.

As a result, each question should include a simple diagram/flowchart, highlighted key points, and concise responses.

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