In this post we are going to discuss about the Physiology study tips, Important learning or questions topics and guidance of exam passing preparation with good score.
This blog is going to help you in Viva table and also in theory exams.
We are going to discuss about the :
- How to read the Subject
- What are the important topics
- How to perform well in the viva table
- How to score well in the University exam
Meaning/ Definition :
Physiology is the scientific study of a biological system’s functions and mechanisms. Physiology is a branch of biology that studies how organisms, organ systems, individual organs, cells, and biomolecules perform chemical and physical tasks in living systems.
How to read the subject?
Physiology subject may create a impression that the subject is easy and short also. So just before exam we will go through quick revision and that’s it, enough for passing score.
But in reality, the if you are ignoring the subject, then you are going to face serious troubles in Medicine Subject specially in Cardiac and Neuro Medicine. In other chapters you also need the concepts but you can make up that thing in short time period.
But he Cardiac and Neuro physiology is so vast and you have to understand all the topics from core ending. So if you are in 1t year of MBBS, then please do not ignore this subject.
Best resources and materials :
- In one word – Dr. Najeeb Sir ; No other options 😇 , He is the Boss of Medicine and just complete all of his Physiology lectures in 1st year.
- Neurophysiology : For that you must have to complete his Neuroanatomy lectures.
What are the important topics :
(Only important for your Exam, study all topics if you want to enjoy Medicine)
1. General Physiology :
- Structures of the cell membrane – In the structure model of the cell membrane the ‘Fluid Mosaic Model’ is the most popular model. Other models are – Danielli-Davson model, Unit membrane model.
- Lipid Layers of the Cell Membrane – Phospholipids, Cholesterol
- Functions of Lipid Layer in Cell membrane – This layer is semipermeable membrane and allows only the fat-soluble substances which can pass through it. –> The water soluble substances can not able to pass through it.
- Phospholipids – Aminophospholipids, Sphingomyelin, Phosphatiphatidylcholine, Phosphatidylethanolamine, Phosphatidylglycerol, Phosphatidylserine, and Phosphatidyllinosito.
- Functions of cell membrane – The membrane protects the inner organelles and the cytoplasm & maintains the shape of its, Passing of semipermeable substances, excretion of waste products, exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- Functions of Peroxisomes : Beta-Oxidation, Detoxification, Utilisation of Oxygen, Glucogenesis, Minor role in formation of Bile Acids, Transforms Purine to uric acid, Participation in the formation of Myelin.
- Structures of DNA & RNA.
- Autophagy : This is a natural physiological mechanism in which the body destroys cells.
- Apoptosis : This is known as the programmed death of the cell under genetic control.
- Cell Junctions : Tight Junction, Gap Junction, Adherens Junction, Focal Adhesion, Desmosome, Hemidesmosome.
- Passive Transport : Simple diffusion by lipid layer, Simple diffusion by protein layer, and Facilitated or carrier-mediated diffusion.
- Active Transport : Primary and Secondary active Transport
- Special type of Active Transport : Endocytosis, Exocytosis
- Homeostatic System : This body function is in charge of maintaining the normalcy of different body systems.
2. Blood and Body fluids :
- Plasma Proteins : Properties and Functions of the plasma proteins, Starling’s Hypothesis that is Important of Osmotic Pressure
- RBC-Erythropoiesis – Definition, Stages of Erythropoiesis, Factors necessary for Erythropoiesis(Stimulating Factors, Maturation Factors, and Factors necessary for Haemoglobin formation), Stimulation factors in details
- WBCs : Neutrophils with Neutrophilia, Pathological variations in different types of white blood cells, Substances secreted by WBCs
- Immunity : Definition, Development process of the Lymphocytes, Antigens, Development of cell-mediated immunity, Development of Humeral Immunity, Antibodies or Immunoglobulins, Cytokines, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
- Platelets : Structure and Composition, Functions.
- Hemostasis : Definition, Platelet plug formation
- Coagulation of Blood : Intrinsic pathway for the formation of Prothrombin Activator, Blood Clot, Hemophilia, Purpura
- Blood Groups : Rh factor, Erythroblastosis Fetalis
- hazards of Blood transfsion
- Spleen : red pulp & White pulp
3. Muscle Physiology :
- Classification : Different features of Skeletal, Cardiac, and smooth muscles fibers.
- Properties : Excitability, Excitability Curve(Rheobase, Utlization time,Chronaxie), Contractility(Types, Rigor mortis and Frank-Starling Law), Refractory Period
- Muscular Contraction : Changes during muscular contraction, Action potential, Biphasic Action Potential, Histological changes during Muscular Contraction, Molecular basis of Muscular Contraction(Excitation-contraction coupling, Role of Troponin and Tropomyosin, Sliding Mechanism and Formation of Actinomyosin complex-Sliding theory), Changes in sarcomere during muscular contraction
- Relaxation of Muscle : Chemical changes, cori cycle
- Neuromuscular junction : Neuromuscular Blockers
- Smooth Muscle : Contractile process in smooth muscle, Length-tension Relationship
- Disorders of Skeletal muscle : Myasthenia Gravis and Lambert-Eaton Syndrome.
4. Digestive System :
- Secretion of Hydrochloric Acid
- Peptic Ulcer
- Composition and Function of Pancreatic Juice
- Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion
- Bile Salts – Formation, Functions
- Jaundice : Types(Prehepatic/Hemolytic, Hepatic/Hepatocellular, Posthepatic/Obstructive)
- Small Intestine : Types of Movements, Peristalsis in fasting motor complex
- Large Intestine : Types(Mixing and Propulsive)
- Gastrointestinal Hormones : Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Hormone, Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide, Glucagon, Glucagon-Like Polypeptide-1, Glucagon-Like Polypeptide-2, Somatostatin, Pancreatic Polypeptide, Peptide YY, Neuropeptide Y, Motilin, Substance P, Ghrelin, etc.)
5. Renal Physiology and Skin :
- Difference between Cortical nephron and Juxtamedullary nephron
- Glomerular Mesangial cells
- Juxtaglomerular cells
- Secretion of hormones(Renin and Renin-angiotensin system)
- Regulation of Glomerular Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration rate
- Factors Regulating GFR
- Mechanism of Reabsorption
- Site of Reabsorption
- Glomerulotubular balance
- Reabsorption of Glucose
- Formation of concentrated urine
- Countercurrent mechanism
- Role of Loop of Henle
- Role of Vasa Recta in the maintenance of medullary gradient
- Osmotic Diuresis
- Reabsorption of Bicarbonate ions
- Secretion of hydrogen ions
- removal oHydrogen ions and Acidification of urine
- Composition of urine
- Renal function tests
- Plasma Clearance
- Creatinine Clearance
- Automatic Bladder
- Uses of diuretic
- Sweat Glands
- Eccrine Glands
6. Endocrinology :
- Anterior Pituitary
- Posterior Pituitary – Hormones secreted
- Retention of water
- Gigantism and Acromegaly
- Cushing’s Disease
- Thyroid Gland : Histology, Thyroid Hormones- Syntheis-Functions, hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Gioiter.
- Actions of Parathormone on Blood calcium level : One Bone, On Kidney and On gastrointestinal tract,
- Hypocalcemia and Tetany
- Regulation of Blood Calcium Level : Parathormonee, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalcified(calcitrol), Calcitonin.
- Disease of Bones : Osteoporosis, Rickets, osteomalacia
- Islets of Langerhans : Cell types, Action of Insulin
- Hyperactivity-hyperinsulinism : Causes and Signs-Syptoms
- Functional Histology of Adrenal cortex(All layers)
- Hormones Secreted by Adrenal Cortex
- Life-saving Hormones / Aldosterone
- Aldosterone escape phenomenon
- Glucocortcoids(Cortisol, Corticosterone, and Cortisone)
- Cushing’s Syndrome
- Addison’s disease or Chronic adrenal Insufficiency
7. Reproductive System :
- Male Reproductive system : Sertoli cells, Blood-testes barrie, Spermatogenesis, Role of hormone in Spermatogenesis
- Ovary : Ovarian hormones, Functions of Progesterone
- Menstrual Cycle : Definition, Ovarian Changes during menstrual cycle, Graafian follicle, Corpus Luteum, Regulation of Menstrual cycle, Hormones involved in Regulation Ovulation, Role of LH, Role of FSH
- Ovulation : Process of ovulation
- Hormonal regulation of Ovulation
- Fetoplacental Unit
- Immunological Pregnancy test
- Milk Secretion and Milk Ejection – Hormones acts and mechanism
- Oral contraceptives
8. Cardiovascular System :
- Valves of the Heart
- Spread action potential through cardiac muscle
- Ionic Basis of Electrical Activity in pacemaker
- Conductive System in Human Heart
- All-Or-None Law
- Atrial Events – Atrial Systeole, Atrial Diastole
- Ventricular Events : Isometric contraction period, Ejection Period, Protodiastole, Isometric relaxation Period, Rapid filling phase, Slow filling phase, Last rapid filling phase.
- Heart Sounds – First, Second, Third and Fourth Test
- ECG : Unipolar Limb Leads, P-R Intervals
- Arrhythmia : Sinus Arrhythmia, Heart Block
- Cardiac Output : Stroke Volume, Minute Volume, and Cardiac Index, Factors maintaining Cardiac Output, Peripheral Resistance, Measurement of cardiac output,
- Heart Rate : Tachycardia, Vagal Tone, Impulses from Baroreceptors-Marley’s Reflex, Marey’s Law
- Arterial Blood Pressure : Peripheral Resistance, Regulation of arterial Blood Pressure, Baroreceptor, Aldosterone, Regulation of Blood pressure, Ausculatory method, Primary Hypertension & Malignant Hypertension
- Venous Blood Pressure : Peripheral Resistance
- Arterial Pulse : Abnormal Pulse (Specially PULSUS PARADOXUS)
- Venous Pulse : Significance
- Coronary Circulation : Need for Oxygen, Metabolic Factors
9. Respiratory System and Environment Physiology :
- Lung Compliance
- Work of Breathing
- Vital Capacity
- Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio Variations : Physiological & Pathological
- Transport of Oxygen : P50 Value, Shift to right, Bohr effect
- Haldane Effect
- respiratory Pontine Centers : Apneustic centre, Pneumotaxic center
- Hyperventilation : Effects
- Hypoventilation : Hypoxia, Classification and Causes, Treatment, Efficacy of Oxygen Therapy in different types of Hypoxia
- Periodic Breathing
10. Nervous System :
- Neuron : Cell body, Nucleus
- Neuroglia : Classification
- Synapse : Definition, Functions including Inhibitory Functions
- Babinski Reflex
- Spinal nerves roots – Anterior or Dorsal & Posterior or Ventral Root
- Anterior Spinothalamic Tract and Lateral Spinothalamic Tract
- Pyramidal Tracts
- Hemisection of Spinal cord : Brown-Sequard Syndrome
- Upper and Lower Motor neuron
- Pathways of pain sensation
- Gate control theory
- Analgesia, Hyperalgesia, Paralgesia
- Intention tremor
- Regulation of hunger and food intake : Feeding centre & Satiety centre
- Cerebellum : Division, Functional Divisons, Applied physiology-cerebellar lesions
- Basal Ganglia : Components, Functions
- Parkinson Disease : Causes, Sings & Symptoms, Treatment.
- Cerebral Cortex : Prefrontal cortex or Orbitofrontal cortex
- Preparations of Animals for Experimental Studies : Decerebrate Rigidity
- Propioceptors : Functions of Muscle Spindle
- Muscle Tone : Regulation of muscle tone
- EEG : Eaves of EEG, Alpha Block
- Physiology of Sleep : Rapid eye movement sleep-REM sleep,Inhibition of Ascending Reticular Activating System
- Motor areas of Brain
11. Special Senses :
- Eye : Inner layers of Retina, Rhodopsin, Photochemical changes in Rhodopsin – Wald Visual Cycle, Phototransduction, Night Blindness
- Visual Pathway : Course pf visual pathway, Effects of lesion at different levels
- Color Vision : Color Blindness
- Errors of Refraction : Myopia/Short Sightedness, Hypermetropia/Long sightedness, Astigmatism, Presbyopia
- Ear : Organ of corti
- Auditory Pathway : Introduction, First order neuron, Second order neuron
- Auditory Defects : Types and causes of Auditory defects, Tests for hearing
- Sensation of Tastes : Taste Buds
How to perform well in viva table :
Now when it comes about performance in the Viva, you have to be prepared with core concepts of each topics along with all the related topics. If the Examiner asks you about the Skeletal muscle contraction mechanism, then from this the examiner can go to the structure, types of contraction, Frank-starling law, etc.
So, you can create a scenario from here, that you can be asked from anywhere from the book.
But still, at first the examiner will start from basics, then if you are able to give the basic answers then he/she will start to go in-depth. And you will go towards honours marks.
For Basics questions, just make sure you are doing all the Lecture classes provided by your Institution.
And for In-depth questions, make a notebook, try to cover all the topics in very short manner, so that you can make a quick revision just before the day of viva exam.
And for Core concept – Just follow Dr. Najeeb Sir lectures : The examiner surely going to be impressed of you. 😍
How to score well in the University exam :
Scoring well in the University exam needs proper suggestions.
So you have to solve all the Previous 10 years question papers. From that you will get 70-80% questions common. And rest 20-30% questions are to be covered from the whole book. If your University has semester system then also try too solve that year’s semester questions papers of all the colleges under that University.
From semester question papers, you can get some of the uncommon questions.
Presentation of Answers :
Now the final time comes where you have to snatch marks from the Examiner, so you have to do something extraordinary to make the examiner impressed. So try to draw Diagrams and Flowcharts in each and every topic.
In physiology Flowcharts are more important than diagrams, so try to make easily understandable Flowcharts, from which the examiner the easily understand what you know about the topic.
And that thing is very less time consuming for the examiner.