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Femur shaft fracture – Clinical features | Mechanism | Types | Diagnosis | Treatment

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Femur shaft fracture
Femur shaft fracture

The femoral shaft is the name given to the long, straight portion of the femur. A femoral shaft fracture occurs when any point along this length of bone breaks.

1. Clinical features :

  1. Swelling.
  2. Deformity of thigh.
  3. Pain during making flexion, extension.
  4. Pain in the fractured area.

2. Types :

Femur shaft fractures types
Femur shaft fracture – Types

There are mainly four types of fracture are seen based on the severity and shape of the fracture.

  1. Simple fracture
  2. Wedge fracture
  3. Butterfly fracture
  4. Comminution fracture

3. Mechanism :

  1. Fall form height.
  2. RTA.
  3. Industrial accidents.
  4. Gun shot injuries.
  5. Birth injuries to children.

4. Diagnosis :

  1. Plain X-Ray – To help in diagnosing the severity and type of the fracture.
  2. Physical appearance can also help to diagnose the fractured area.
  3. CT scan if plain X-ray is not clear.
  4. MRI to see any vascular damage.

5. Treatment :

Firstly we give the patient a painkiller like Diclofenac IM, then we send the patient for X-Ray. Then we try to find out the fracture type by looking at the X-Ray plate. Based on the severity and types there are several types of treatments are available.

I. Conservative treatment :


  1. 0-2 years : Plaster spica.
  2. 2 – 10 years : Split Russel traction.
  3. 10 – 15 years : 90 to 90 degree femoral skeletal traction hip spica or both.
  4. >15 years : Same as Adults.


  1. Traction.
  2. Cast bracing.

II. Surgical treatment :

  1. ORIF(Open reduction and internal fixation).
  2. Intramedullary nail(IM NAIL) : K Nail.
  3. Interlocking nail : Gross-Kempf nail is used in conditions like Segmental fractures, Comminuted fractures, Proximal and distal fractures, and incase of non-union.
  4. Flexible medullary nail like Ender’s nail.

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