We have discussed definition and all the signs which are seen during the examination of Exophthalmos.
When the eyeball is pushed forward in the retro-orbital space due to an increase in fat, oedema, or cellular infiltration, the eyelids retrace and the sclera becomes visible below the lower margin of the iris initially, then above the upper edge of the iris.
All the signs of Exophthalmos :
1. Von Graefe’s sign :
When the patient is requested to look downwards, the upper eyelid lags behind the eyeball.
2. Joffroy’s sign :
With the face angled downwards, there is no wrinkling on the forehead.
3. Stellwag’s sign :
This is a gazing expression with infrequent blinking and a widening of the palpebral fissure. This is caused by a toxic contraction of the levator palpebrae superioris striated fibres.
4. Moebius’s sign :
This refers to the difficulty or failure of the eyeballs to converge.
5. Dalrympte’s’s sign :
Because the upper eyelid has retracted, the upper sclera is exposed.