Here In this post we are going to discuss about the important questions topics of General Anatomy. This topics can help you to understand the theory and Viva exam questions.
Meaning/ Definition :
In this branch of Anatomy we mainly study about the basics of all the systems like Muscles, Bones, Joints, Circulator System(Arteries, Veins, Capillaries, Anastomoses), Lymphatic system, Nervous system, Skin and fasciae, Connective tissue, Ligaments and Raphe, Some topics of Genetics also.
What are the important topics :
Firstly we are dividing the subject into 10 chapters :
Genetics, Skeletal System, Joints, Circulatory System, Lymphatic System, Muscles and fascia, Nervous System, Skin, Connective tissue, Ligaments and Raphe.
Now lets discuss one by one in detail :
1. Genetics :
- Stages of Mitosis : Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
- Types of Genes : Dominant and Recessive genes, Carrier genes, Co-dominant gene, Sex-linked genes, Sex-limited genes,Structural genes and Regulatory genes.
- Structure of chromosome : One Chromosome — Two Chromatid.
- Types of Chromosomes : Metacentric, Sub-Metacentric and Acrocentric.
- Barr Body(Sex chromatin) : This is an inactivated X chromosome attached with the nuclear membrane.
- Karyotyping : Identification of chromosomes.
- Down Syndrome : Also called Trisomy 21, because there is trisomy of chromosome number 21.
- Cri du chat Syndrome : Deletion of a part of ‘p’ arm in chromosome number 5.
- Turner’s Syndrome : The genotype is 45X.
- Klinefelter’s Syndrome : The genotype is 47 XXY.
- Pedigree chart : To map chromosomal disorders of a particular family.
- Prenatal Diagnosis : This is the diagnosis of any genetic abnormalities before the birth. This can be done by various procedures like USG.
2. Skeletal System :
This mainly includes the bones and cartilages. The whole framework of the body if formed by the skeletal system.
- Classification of Bones : Long bones, Short bones, Flat bones, Irregular bones, Pneumatic bones, Sesamoid bones and Accessory bones.
- Gross Structure of an fully developed long bone : Shaft(Periosteum, Cortex and the Medullary cavity) and the two ends.
- Parts of a developing bone : Epiphysis, Diaphysis, Metaphysis and the Epiphyseal plate of cartilage.
- Blood Supply of the Bone : Arterial Supply of Lone bones(Nutrient artery, Periosteal arteries, epiphyseal arteries, Metaphysial arteries) and Venous drainage.
- Cartilage : Types(Hyaline cartilage, Fibrocartlage, Elastic cartilage)
3. Joints :
These are the junctions between two or more bones.
- Structural Classification : Fibrous Joint, Cartilaginous joint and Synovial joint
4. Circulator System :
- Components of the Circulatory System are : Heart, Arteries, veins and Capillaries.
- Types of Circulation of blood : systemic circulation, Pulmonary circulation, portal circulation.
|1. Carry oxygenated blood(except pulmonary artery) from the heart.||1. Carry deoxygenated blood(except pulmonary vein) to the heart.|
|2. Normally bright red in color.||2. Normally dark red in color.|
|3. Walls are elastic and thick that expand with surge of blood.||3. Thin walls or less elastic.|
|4. No valves are present||4. Valves are present.|
|5. Pulse can be felt.||5. Pulse cannot be felt.|
5. Lymphatic System :
Immunity providing lymphatic system has mainly 6 components :
- Lymph capillaries and lymph vessles
- Central lymphoid tissues
- Peripheralymphoid organs
- Circulating lymphocytes
- Epithelio-Lymphoid system
- Mononuclear phagocyte system
6. Muscles and Fascia :
- Types of Muscles : Striated/Skeletal, Non-Striated/Smooth and Cardiac Muscles.
- Parts of Muscle : Two ends(Origin & Insertion), Two parts ( Fleshy part, Fibrous parts).
- Nerve supply of Skeletal muscle : Motor nerve fibres(60%), Sensory fibres(40%)
- Nerve supply of smooth muscle : Single-unit types and Multi-unit type.
- Fascia are of two types : Superficial and Deep fascia.
- Superficial fascia : This ones are the general covering of the body beneath the skin, made up of loose areolar tissue with varying amount of fat.
- Deep fascia : These are tough inelastic fibrous sheet which invades the body beneath the superficial fascia.
7. Nervous System :
Parts of the nervous system :
- Central nervous system : Brain, Spinal cord
- Peripheral nervous system : Cerebrospinal nervous system and Peripheral autonomic nervous system.
Cell types of the nervous system : Neuron and Neuroglia
8. Skin :
This is the general covering of the entire covering of the body.
- Pigments of Skin : Melanin, Melanoid, Carotene, Haemoglobin and Oxyhaemoglobin.
- Structure of the Skin : Epidermis, Dermis.
- Appendages of skin : Nails, Hair, Sweat glands, Sebaceous glands.
9. Connective tissue :
- Loose connective tissue – Areolar tissue, adipose tissue, myxomatous tissue and reticular tissue.
- Dense Irregular connective tissue – tendon, Cartilage and bones.
10. Ligaments and Raphe :
- Ligaments : these are fibrous bands connect the adjacent bones.
- Raphe : These are linear fibrous band formed by interdigitation of the tendinous or aponeurotic ends of the muscles, like the two lateral half of the tongue.